Promotion des systèmes de semis direct sous couverture végétale au Bénin : état des lieux, travaux de terrain et perspectives

 présentation PPT | |    

L'environnement agricole général montre une dégradation et baisse de fertilité des sols. Ici sont relatés la problématique, les activités dans les Collines, les stratégies de diffusion et les perspectives.

Mots-clés : maïs, Légumineuses, érosion, Adventices, diffusion, arbre, TCS - Techniques culturales simplifiées, propriétés physico-chimiques du sol

Fiche technique : balai chimique

 fiches techniques/pédagogiques | |    

Fiche technique pour le montage du balai chimique pour appliquer bouillie de pesticide avec mèche mouillante.

Mots-clés : sans travail du sol, Adventices, Pesticides, petite agriculture familiale, Socio-économie

Upland Agroecology Research and development in Vietnam

 présentation PPT | |    

Diaporama upon land degradation on continuing shifting cultivation. The sloping land use carry on erosion, run-off for the smallholders of the highlands in Vietnam. The VASI and CIRAD institute use an upland agro-ecology approach to reach sustainable agricultural production by smouldering for example.

Mots-clés : écobuage, Les Hautes Terres , érosion, Adventices, mulch, scv, Intégration agriculture élevage

Rapport d'activités 2005 SCV mali

 ouvrage de vulgarisation | |    

Rapport d'activité annuel sur exploitations et expérimentations en milieu paysan, avec rendements, biomasse et temps de travaux sur SCV avec cultures de coton sorgho, maïs

Mots-clés : scv, TCS - Techniques culturales simplifiées, systèmes agraires, sorgho, biomasse, petite agriculture familiale, diffusion, Adventices, Socio-économie, Coton

Four-year experimentation on cereals under direct seeding mulch-based cropping system (DMC) by north Cameroonian farmers

 article ACL | |    

About 250 farmers have tried comparing cereal cultivation under direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC) against the traditional cropping practices from year 2001 to 2004. The on-farm tested systems include mixed cropping of a cereal (maize, sorghum, millet) and a cover crop (mucuna, brachiaria, crotalaria, cowpea, dolichos). These mixed cropping practices are done for the following objectives: 1) Produce aboveground biomass to build-up mulch for the following season's crop (mainly cotton). 2) Soil improvement through the physical and chemical (produce N) contribution of the associated plants. 3) Forage production. 4) Weed control. 5) Protect the soil surface against erosion and rain impact. 6) Produce consumable grains for man and animals. Up till present the tested plants meet the above objectives differentially and are adapted to the local agro climatic conditions of North Cameroon (rainfall from 700 to 1200 mm). Thus Brachiaria ruzisiensis produces aboveground biomass in quantities (4-5 t/ha even under mixed cropping) and quality (persisting as mulch for over one year after production). Further, it is very efficient in controlling Striga and is a good forage crop. However, it can impoverish the soils if its biomass is exported several times without any fertiliser supplements since it is not a nitrogen fixing plant. On the contrary Crotalaria retusa is a nitrogen fixing plant and therefore enriching the soils. This plant is less palatable to animals and therefore advantageous to farmers who cannot protect their farmland from pasturing animals in the dry season. It is equally very efficient in controlling weeds. Four years of experimentation has enabled us to produce practical recommendations in mixed cropping on the following : sowing date, crop type, tolerance to herbicides, competition with cereals, etc. This experimentation has also enabled us to see how the various plants tie with the above-mentioned objectives. On-going research work is on the following: 1) Diversifying the range of plant material available, focusing on local varieties. 2) Extending these cropping techniques to cover vertisols covering tens of thousands of hectares in North Cameroon. 3) Introducing these plants at the beginning and at the end of the cycle of the main crop in order to better use early and the late rains.

Mots-clés : maïs, Agriculture de conservation, Légumineuses, brachiaria, Adventices, scv, biomasse

Four-years of experimentation on cotton under mulch by north cameroonian farmers

 Document de projet | |    

On farm trials in CA are very useful. They provide farmer’s opinions on experimented techniques and enable to take them into account when designing DMC features. But the monitoring is expensive and sometimes fastidious. After these 4 years of trials in farmers’ fields, the effort will be focused on the training of Sodecoton extension team that will be in charge of CA extension to a large scale. At a research point of view, the remaining topics to be focused on are: + selection of adapted fertilisation according to cover plants used in the rotation + selection of herbicide treatment to decrease labour on the field with more weeds (North province) when mulching is not sufficient + production of biomass the same year of the cotton, taking advantage of the first rain of the season.

Mots-clés : recherche-action, Adventices, diffusion, mulch, plante de couverture, scv, Coton

Le SCV (Semis direct sous Couverture Végétale), un élément stratégique de gestion durable des terres agricoles : une expérience française comme base de réflexion pour le Mali

 thèse | |    

Le semis direct sous couverture végétale, est basé sur un non-labour du sol, la conservation des résidus de récolte et l’implantation de couverts végétaux entre deux cycles de culture. Certains agriculteurs français, dans la région de Tours, ont adopté les TCS (Techniques Culturales Simplifiées) en début des années 1990, pour réduire leurs coûts de production. A cette période, des sessions de formation sur le SCV (Semis direct sous Couverture Végétale) furent organisées au niveau départemental et animées par des microbiologistes du sol. Le présent mémoire a pour objectif de caractériser les systèmes de culture sans labour avec couverture végétale et leurs conditions d’intégration au sein des exploitations agricoles. Les itinéraires techniques en SCV se raisonnent à la parcelle, en fonction des observations de l’agriculteur sur les mauvaises herbes et les parasites.

Mots-clés : Adventices, TCS - Techniques culturales simplifiées, scv, politique publique, couverture permanente

Impact of a DMC rainfed rice-based system on soil pest and Striga infestation and damage in Madagascar

 poster | |    

Direct seeding, Mulch-based, Conservation agriculture (DMC) systems are being extended in Madagascar in view of reducing erosion and loss of fertility of hill slope soils observed in conventional rainfed systems. However, little is known on their effects on infestation and damage to crops (particularly rice) by soil insect pests and Striga. While in the regions around Lake Alaotra and Manakara, dramatic damage by black beetles (Heteronychus spp.: Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) was observed on rice cropped on mulch , attacks by these pests were reduced after a few years of DMC management in the Highlands of the Vakinankaratra region . On the other hand, in the Middle-West of Vakinankaratra, where Striga asiatica (Scrophulariaceae)has become a major constraint to staple cereal crop cultivation in rainfed systems, infestation of rice and maize by this parasite was drastically reduced after just one year of DMC management based on dead or live mulches, compared to the traditional plough-based system . The objective of the studies presented was to elucidate the factors accountable for reduction in infestation and damage by soil insect pests and Striga in DMC rainfed rice/soybean-based systems, with particular emphasis on its effect on natural enemies of pests.

Mots-clés : Riz, Arachis pintoï, Les Hautes Terres , Adventices, petite agriculture familiale, scv

Dossiê fotos : a destruição pdao trimônio solo tropical ou o fracasso da transferência norte sul da gestão dos solos

 fiches techniques/pédagogiques | |    

Mots-clés : Légumineuses, brachiaria, érosion, Adventices, TCS - Techniques culturales simplifiées, scv, biomasse, couverture permanente, Biologie des sols

Systèmes de culture sur couverture végétale

 présentation PPT | |    

Ce rapport présente les résultats des activités de recherche sur les systèmes de culture à base de coton sur couverture végétale menées au sein du volet fertilité du projet DPGT pendant la campagne 2001/2002 en milieu paysan.

Mots-clés : sorgho, Légumineuses, Adventices, fertilité, scv, Socio-économie, Coton, Intégration agriculture élevage
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