Most farming practices are detrimental to soil organic matter reserves, leading to a significant decrease in biological activity and an increased risk of erosion. Soil invertebrate populations (macrofauna) are also sharply reduced in annual crop systems. The role of macrofauna in pedological processes and in the regulation of microbial activity has been fully described (Lavelle et al., 1999). Some agroecological practices and especially plant covers straw mulch or perennial plants intercropped with annual crops can enhance the sustainability of tropical cropping systems (Séguy et al., 1996). This study was aimed at assessing the effects of two plant covers (greater bird's food trefoil, Lotus uliginosus, and oat, Avena sativa) on soil macrofauna populations in Réunion (Indian Ocean).