In Madagascar Highlands, population pressure and intensive rice cultivation in the lowlands has led to cultivation on the fragile, low fertility soils of the hillsides. Fertilisation being limited, yields remain low while erosion leads to paddy field silting-up and destruction of downstream infrastructures. To overcome these problems, experiments on direct planting on permanent soil cover (DPPSC) have been conducted since 1991 in the Andranomanelatra farm and since 1994 in farmers' fields, covering a wide range of biophysical and socio-economic situations