About 250 farmers have tried comparing cereal cultivation under direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC) against the traditional cropping practices from year 2001 to 2004. The on-farm tested systems include mixed cropping of a cereal (maize, sorghum, millet) and a cover crop (mucuna, brachiaria, crotalaria, cowpea, dolichos). These mixed cropping practices are done for the following objectives: 1) Produce aboveground biomass to build-up mulch for the following season's crop (mainly cotton). 2) Soil improvement through the physical and chemical (produce N) contribution of the associated plants. 3) Forage production. 4) Weed control. 5) Protect the soil surface against erosion and rain impact. 6) Produce consumable grains for man and animals. Up till present the tested plants meet the above objectives differentially and are adapted to the local agro climatic conditions of North Cameroon (rainfall from 700 to 1200 mm). Thus Brachiaria ruzisiensis produces aboveground biomass in quantities (4-5 t/ha even under mixed cropping) and quality (persisting as mulch for over one year after production). Further, it is very efficient in controlling Striga and is a good forage crop. However, it can impoverish the soils if its biomass is exported several times without any fertiliser supplements since it is not a nitrogen fixing plant. On the contrary Crotalaria retusa is a nitrogen fixing plant and therefore enriching the soils. This plant is less palatable to animals and therefore advantageous to farmers who cannot protect their farmland from pasturing animals in the dry season. It is equally very efficient in controlling weeds. Four years of experimentation has enabled us to produce practical recommendations in mixed cropping on the following : sowing date, crop type, tolerance to herbicides, competition with cereals, etc. This experimentation has also enabled us to see how the various plants tie with the above-mentioned objectives. On-going research work is on the following: 1) Diversifying the range of plant material available, focusing on local varieties. 2) Extending these cropping techniques to cover vertisols covering tens of thousands of hectares in North Cameroon. 3) Introducing these plants at the beginning and at the end of the cycle of the main crop in order to better use early and the late rains.