The present study was carried out in the cotton belt in the Far-North Province of Cameroon. It has been focused on the physical properties of soils under mulch-based cropping systems. The experimental design was drawn from one on Direct seeding Mulch-based Cropping system (DMC) trial location under a controlled conditions in the region of Kaéle (700-800 mm mean annual rainfall), and where a network of 20 farmers is carrying out on-farm trials in the region of Maroua (800 mm mean annual rainfall),. Plots under mulch-based cropping systems established 2, 3 or 4 years ago were compared against farmers' traditional plots under direct seeding without mulch or with tillage practice. These plots were cropped with sorghum or cotton. Using the gravimetric method it has been shown that the apparent density of soils on the upper horizons under DMC was lower compared to soils from the farmers' traditional cropping systems. Bulk density values lie between 1.2 g/cm3 to 1.5 g/cm3 against 1.6 g/cm3 to 1.7 g/cm3 for farmers' traditional control plots. These results are due to an increase in soil porosity induced probably by a higher soil biological activity. A better water infiltration was also obtained'under DMC against the farmers' traditional systems. These mean infiltration values were obtained using the double ring and «Beer can» methods, and lie between 0.9 to 5 mm min-1 for the mulch-based system against 0.6 to 1 mm min-1 for the farmers' traditional systems. This study shows that after a period of less than 3 years under DMC an improvement of the physical properties of the soil was clearly obtained, notably soil porosity and consequently soil water dynamics. This improvement affects the soil water availability and therefore water supply to the crops.