Traditional farming systems have drastically changed over the last fifteen years in southern Xayabury province through considerable agricultural development based on rainfed cash crops production such as maize, rice-bean (Vigna umbellata), peanut, Job's tears (Coîx lacryma), black cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and sesame. This development depends mainly on local market accessibility, transfer of technologies from Thailand and financial capacities of local traders (inputs, heavy mechanization and technical skills from Thailand).