In the "Cerrados" of Central Brazil, direct seeding mulch based cropping systems (DMC) applied by farmers have been adapted to tropical conditions (high temperature,high rainfall and resulting high rates of organic matter mineralization). Generally, time saved with no-tillage allowed farmers to plant another crop in the same year, producing additional biomass, increasing thereby organic matter entries into the soil,and maintaining the soil surface always covered and protected from soil erosion (pictures). However, the level of biomass restitution, and the long term impact on C sequestration in DMC systems will differ in function of the type of commercial crop rotation, the species used as cover-crops, the level of productivity and the farmer's management (Séguy et al., 2003.