In China, the central and the provincial governments of Yunnan launched a series of reforms to address the problems of upland development during the 1990s. These reforms were based on the premise that the best strategy for addressing the problems of upland development is to promote intensification of land use so that farmers’ food needs are met from a smaller area. The land and labor resources formerly tied to meet the food needs can then be released for the production of in come-generating cash crops and also for environmental purposes. Guided by this strategy, the government promoted improved upland rice technologies and initiated other reforms to encourage land use intensification. Anecdotal evidence indicates that this strategy is making a positive impact on farmers’ livelihoods and the environment by inducing desirable changes in land use patterns.