Eco-intensification dans les montagnes du Vietnam - Contraintes à l'adoption de la culture sur couvertures végétales - Ecological intensification inn the mountains of Vietnam: Constraints to the adoption of cropping systems based on mulches and cover crop

 article ACL | |     

D’importants efforts sont menés dans le monde tropical pour l’érosion des sols et d’améliorer les bilans minéraux et hydriques. En agriculture familiale, l’adoption des SCV reste cependant limitée par les profonds changements que ces systèmes induisent dans la gestion des ressources de l’exploitation. L’objectif de cette étude menée au Vietnam est d’évaluer la faisabilité, pour différents types d’exploitations, de SCV préalablement mis au point à l’échelle de la parcelle. La méthode repose sur la simulation de ménages rationnels optimisant l’usage des ressources en vue d’objectifs de sécurité alimentaire et de revenu. Elle révèle la faible attractivité économique des SCV proposés en raison du surcroît de travail et d’intrants que ces nouveaux systèmes requièrent la première année de mise en oeuvre. L’étude montre aussi que pour rendre les SCV plus attractifs, il serait nécessaire de combiner des adaptations de la technique, telles que la diminution des quantités de biomasse dans les paillis associée à un recours aux herbicides, avec des subventions. Des recherches complémentaires sont nécessaires pour mieux quantififier les services environnementaux qui justififieraient de telles subventions. Il est également nécessaire de comprendre les causes de variations spatiales et temporelles des performances agronomiques et économiques des SCV et des systèmes actuellement pratiqués. Enfin, il faudrait comparer les SCV à d’autres techniques de conservation des sols, dont en particulier la culture en terrasse qui se répand actuellement dans la région.

Mots-clés : Agriculture de conservation, mulch, petite agriculture familiale, plante de couverture, scv, Socio-économie

Towards large-scale adoption of no-tillage in central Mexico: a participatory, multi-institutional approach to technology development and diffusion

 fiches techniques/pédagogiques | |     

Conservation tillage (CT) has been adopted in Mexico on less than 500,000 ha (only 3% of the national cropped area), in contrast with Brazil, Argentina, or Paraguay (Derpsh, 1998). Reasons include: - Uncoordinated efforts by the various institutions involved. - Use of top-down, rigid transfer approaches. - Technology not adequately tailored to farmer conditions and constraints. - Limited access to CT drills. - Insufficient training of farmers and technicians. - Virtually no technical assistance for farmers.

Mots-clés : sans travail du sol, recherche-action, diffusion, scv, Socio-économie

Differential adoption of direct-seeding in Guanajuato Mexico : a baseline diagnostic

 poster | |     

Mexico who are facing increased competition from world markets. Conservation tillage (CT) has been promoted as a productivity enhancing and resource conserving technology that benefits grain farmers, but despite its advantages has not been widely adopted. Some information exists on CT adoption rates but the information is incoherent and divergent. This study examines CT adoption among farmers in Guanajuato, Mexico. A diagnostic survey was designed to procure baseline information for a participatory research development program to develop sustainable farming practices based on CT principles.

Mots-clés : maïs, diffusion, scv, systèmes agraires

The Impact of Conservation Tillage on the Productivity and Stability of Maize Cropping Systems: A Case Study in Western Mexico

 acte de colloque | |     

This paper examines the economics of introducing conservation tillage into maize cropping systems in the state of Jalisco, in the western part of Mexico. A stochastic cost-benefit analysis (SCBA) of introducing conservation tillage in two contrasting agro-climatic zones in the four main maize management systems in the area was carried out. The SCBA takes into account the effects of conservation tillage on average returns and fully evaluates its potential risk-reducing aspect. The SCBA results were then used for a stochastic dominance analysis to evaluate farmers' incentives, characterized by their aversion to risk. The analysis reveals that although conservation tillage is economically viable, cash-constrained farmers, especially in the dry areas, may not readily adopt it. This is because conservation tillage is not adapted to small-scale farmers in Mexico, who lack seeding equipment and need techniques that are less reliant on herbicides. It is suggested that more work should be done with the participation of farmers in the region to attain a conservation tillage system that is better adapted to their circumstances.

Mots-clés : maïs, eau, Les Hautes Terres , petite agriculture familiale, Bilan hydrique, Socio-économie
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